This study suggests that sometimes factual corrections increase — rather than decrease — misperceptions among a target group. In four experiments, subjects read mock news articles that either included just a politician's misleading claim or a misleading claim and a correction. Nyhan and Reifler found that "conservatives who received a correction telling them that Iraq did not have [Weapons of Mass Destruction] were more likely to believe that Iraq had WMD." Rather than improving understanding, fact-checking reinforced the mistaken belief. Nyhan and Reifler billed this the "backfire effect." While sensational, these findings have since been disputed.