This paper, presented at the International Conference on Asian Digital Libraries, aims to uncover the types of rumors and "counter-rumors" (or debunks) that surfaced on Twitter following the falsely reported death of former Singaporean Prime Minister Lee Kuan Yew. Researchers analyzed 4,321 tweets about Lee's death and found six categories of rumors, four categories of counter-rumors and two categories belonging to neither. With more counter-rumors than rumors, the study's results suggest that Twitter users often attempt to stop the spread of false rumors online.
Researchers examined a final selection of 20 experiments from 1994 to 2015 that address fake social and political news accounts in order to determine the most effective ways to combat beliefs based on misinformation. The headline finding is that correcting misinformation is possible, but it's often not as strong as the misinformation itself. The analysis has several take-aways for fact-checkers, most notably the importance of creating counter-messages and alternative narratives if they want to change their audiences’ minds and getting on to the correction as quickly as possible.